This book introduces and explores major topics in contemporary educational measurement: criterion-referenced testing, item response theory (IRT), computer-based testing, cross-lingual and cross-cultural assessment, and accountability testing. Psychometric experts describe forward-looking measurement practices and provide a contextualized understanding of how and why they were developed, how they can be used, and where they may go in the future. In addition to presenting key concepts and formulas, the volume covers established and emerging applications and discusses recurrent challenges that require additional research. A helpful glossary of abbreviations is included. The book is grounded in the work of Ronald K. Hambleton.